Jewish Agricultural Colonies of South Ukraine and Crimea


 
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История еврейских земледельческих колоний Юга Украины и Крыма
 
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Справочник еврейских земледельческих колоний Юга Украины
 
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О названиях еврейских колоний
 
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Частновладельческие еврейские колонии Херсонской губернии
 
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Юденплан
 
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Погромы в годы Гражданской войны
 
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Еврейские национальные административные единицы Юга Украины (1930 г.)
 
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Калининдорфский еврейский национальный район
 
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Сталиндорфский еврейский национальный район
 
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Новозлатопольский еврейский национальный район
 
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Еврейские поселения в Крыму (1922-1926)
 
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Еврейские населенные пункты в Крыму до 1941 г.
 
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Фрайдорфский и Лариндорфский еврейские национальные районы
 
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История отдельных колоний
 
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Воспоминания, статьи, очерки, ...
 
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Контакт

 
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The Guide to Jewish Agricultural Colonies of South Ukraine
 
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The Jewish national administrative units of South Ukraine (1930)
 
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Kalinindorf jewish national rayon
 
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Stalindorf jewish national rayon
 
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The Jewish settlements in Crimea (1922-1926)
 
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The Jewish settlements in Crimea till 1941
 
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Fraydorf and Larindorf Jewish national rayons



Yakov Pasik      

Fraydorf and Larindorf Jewish national rayons

      13 October, 1930 Fraydorf Jewish National rayon (district) has been established in Crimea from the parts of Evpatoriya, Dzhankoy and Simferopol rayons. The rayon covered the majority of Jewish agricultural settlements established by that time on uninhabited and the least favorable for agricultural land in north-west of Crimea. Fraydorf rayon was different from the Jewish national rayons in Ukraine that all Jewish agricultural settlements have been based here in the 1920's. There were absent the old Jewish colonies similar to based in the 1807-1860 in the Kherson and Ekaterinoslav provinces.

      On 1st March 1931 the population of the rayon consisted of 29 600 persons, among them the Jews were about 35%, Russian - 20%, Tatars - 20% of Germans - 15%, Ukrainians - 5% and other - 5%. It was planned that after settling all the land which was given to the igrants, the Jews would be about 70% of the total population of the rayon [1].

      The total area of rayon was equal to 246 000 ha, of which 131 800 ha or 53% of the total area was the land of Jewish resettlement funds. By area the rayon was one of the the largest in the Crimea. After changing the borders in 1932, the area of rayon was equivalent to 195 852 ha, of which 167 057 ha of agricultural land values. Complete arrays of Jewish plots with an area of 78 492 ha drew along western and eastern borders of the rayon. In the rest of the territory were located Russians, Tatars, Germans, Ukrainians and Estonians farms. 31 village soviets (council) was formed in the rayon, 15 of them Jewish, 5 Tatar, 2 German and 9 mixed[2].

Map of Fraydorf Jewish national rayons. 1931.

Карта

      Fraydorf rayon was agricultural. The main profile of agriculture - crops and livestock, with a predominance of sheep production. New vineyards were established over large areas. As a result of the forced collectivisation in the January 1st, 1934 the rayon had 93 kolkhozes (collective farm), which covered 93.7% of all peasant farm . 5 th machine and tractor stations (MTS): Fraydorf, Kadysh, Larindorf, Smidovich and Naydorf served all kolkhozes. By the early 1934, these MTS had 315 tractors, 94 combines participated in the harvest [3].

      Despite the big difficulties of relocation, by mid 1930's fraydorf rayon achieved some success.
      In Fraydorf rayon absolutely was not surface water - rivers, lakes, etc. Thanks well drilling machine, brought from America, were quickly erected 161 Mine and 22 artesian wells with depths ranging from 60 to 180 m. This solved the challenges of ensure the rayon with water.
      Much attention was given to build for migrants, objects of education, culture and health.
      The rayon had 69 schools, which cover all school-age children. Of this total, there were 16 board school. The rayon also had a tractor regional school and regional school, which prepared field husbandmans, breeders and accounting for kolkhozes.
      3 hospitals 50 beds, 2 dispensaries and 2 first-aid post operated in the rayon. 9 doctors and 26 paramedic serviced these medical establishments.
      9 power stations, 25 telephone installations and 130 public loudspeaker worked here in 1934.
      All the Jewish settlements were radio-equipped, most everyone - electrified. Actively worked clubs, libraries, reading rooms and field equipments [4].

      Fraydorf (Free Village in yiddish) was the administrative rayon center, located 35 km from Evpatoriya and connected with the last by bus.
      Two colleges operated in rayon center. 40 students enrolled in Fraydorf Jewish college of agricultural mechanization. Fraydorf Jewish pedagogical college from 1932 prepared Teachers for Jewish Schools. Education in colleges was conducted in Yiddish for all subject matter.
      Newspaper "Lenin veg" (Lenin's way) published from 1931 to 1935 in Hebrew and Russian languages. It acted Crimean Jewish Kolkhoz theater.

      In 1935 the downscaling of rayons was performed in the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and second Jewish National rayon - Larindorf was formed. This rayon consists of 12 village soviets of Fraydorf, which were concentrated 63,5% of its Jewish population, 6 of Dzhankoy and 2 of Ishun rayons. Dzhurchi became a rayon center. The population was about 15 thousand people. The rayon had 34 kolkhozes, 2 MTS, 35 schools a medical post and two medical dispensaries. In 1937 the rayon built cultural centre. In 1938 began working food integrated plant, in 1939, the power station came into operation , in 1940 - dairy plant. Newspaper "Stalin veg"("Stalin's way") published from 1935 to 1938 in Hebrew and Russian.

Map of Fraydorf and Larindorf Jewish national rayons. 1937.

Карта

      Foreign Jewish charitable organisations provided substantial assistance in the formation and development of the Crimean Jewish national rayons. If the Soviet Government allocated the land for newly created Jewish holdings, foreign organizations allocated the bulk of funds for its development. The share of foreign sponsors accounted for about 70% of funds, Soviet government gave 20% and funds of immigrants comprised only 10%. Agro-JDC provided the greatest assistance. Only this organization has allocated for construction of Jewish settlement in the Crimea about 30 million dollars [5].

      But despite the success of Migration Policy in late 1920's and the beginning of 1930's Jews have not been able to become a clear majority in Fraydorf and Larindorf rayons. Jewish resettlement in Crimea virtually ceased to 1937. Violent collectivization, "internationalization" of Jewish kolkhozes, the fight with Jewish tradition and religion, land and economic conflicts with neighbors, course of industrialization, redirection of efforts to the settling in Birobidzhan, reduction of foreign aid led to the exodus of the Jewish population from agricultural settlements in the rapidly growing cities. Since 1936 Soviet press began to call Fraydorf and Larindorf rayons "multinational". In 1937 the rayons officially ceased to be a Jewish national. According to the census of 1939, at 17 December 1939 in 98 communities of Fraydorf rayon lived 14366 people, 2200 of them Jews, and in 176 communities of Larindorf rayon lived 14350 people, 3492 of them Jews.

      The war Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union became tragic page in the history of Fraydorf and Larindorf rayons. Before German troops entered the Crimea in October 1941, about 50% of Jewish population of rayons managed to evacuate. The Jews stayed on the occupied territories were destroyed in the period from November 1941 to June 1942.

      After the liberation of Crimea from Nazi invaders, 14 Dec., 1944 by the decree of Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR Fraydorf rayon was renamed in Novoselovka, and Larindorf - in Pervomaysk. Then, have been renamed all settlements and kolkhozes, have Jewish names.

   ЛИТЕРАТУРА :

1. Ю. Гольде. Евреи земледельцы в Крыму. М., «Дер Эмес», 1932. стр. 336. 2. Невельштейн Е. Фрайдорфский еврейский национальный район (Крым) / ОЗЕТ. – М.: Дер Эмес, 1934. стр. 3, 20.
3. Там же, стр. 14, 7, 11.
4. Там же, стр. 4, 7, 8.
5. В.Дымшиц, Красный сион. Проект еврейской автономии в Крыму и на Дальнем Востоке. Центр по созданию Еврейского музея в Санкт-Петербурге.
http://judaica.spb.ru/exbsh/ex10/ozet_r.shtml
22-10-2008    


Карта
Tractor convoy is traveling to the October demonstration in the village Fraydorf. Evpatoriya rayon. Crimea, 1926
Photo from site http://www.ozet.ort.spb.ru/

Карта
Mountain Jews. Colony №36. Evpatoriya rayon.
Photo from the book M. Beyzer, M. Mitsel «American brother. JDC in Russia, the Soviet Union, the CIS »


Замечания, предложения, материалы для публикации направляйте по адресу:     y.pasik@mail.ru
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