Fraydorf and Larindorf
October, 1930 Fraydorf Jewish National rayon (district)
has been established in Crimea from the parts of
Evpatoriya, Dzhankoy and Simferopol rayons. The rayon
covered the majority of Jewish agricultural settlements
established by that time on uninhabited and the least
favorable for agricultural land in north-west of Crimea.
Fraydorf rayon was different from the Jewish national
rayons in Ukraine that all Jewish agricultural
settlements have been based here in the 1920's. There
were absent the old Jewish colonies similar to based in
the 1807-1860 in the Kherson and Ekaterinoslav
1st March 1931 the population of the rayon consisted of
29 600 persons, among them the Jews were about 35%,
Russian - 20%, Tatars - 20% of Germans - 15%, Ukrainians
- 5% and other - 5%. It was planned that after settling
all the land which was given to the igrants, the Jews
would be about 70% of the total population of the rayon
total area of rayon was equal to 246 000 ha, of which
131 800 ha or 53% of the total area was the land of
Jewish resettlement funds. By area the rayon was one of
the the largest in the Crimea. After changing the
borders in 1932, the area of rayon was equivalent to 195
852 ha, of which 167 057 ha of agricultural land values.
Complete arrays of Jewish plots with an area of 78 492
ha drew along western and eastern borders of the rayon.
In the rest of the territory were located Russians,
Tatars, Germans, Ukrainians and Estonians farms. 31
village soviets (council) was formed in the rayon, 15 of
them Jewish, 5 Tatar, 2 German and 9 mixed.
Map of Fraydorf Jewish national rayons. 1931.
rayon was agricultural. The main profile of agriculture
- crops and livestock, with a predominance of sheep
production. New vineyards were established over large
areas. As a result of the forced collectivisation in the
January 1st, 1934 the rayon had 93 kolkhozes (collective
farm), which covered 93.7% of all peasant farm . 5 th
machine and tractor stations (MTS): Fraydorf, Kadysh,
Larindorf, Smidovich and Naydorf served all kolkhozes.
By the early 1934, these MTS had 315 tractors, 94
combines participated in the harvest
the big difficulties of relocation, by mid 1930's
fraydorf rayon achieved some
Fraydorf rayon absolutely was not surface water -
rivers, lakes, etc. Thanks well drilling machine,
brought from America, were quickly erected 161 Mine and
22 artesian wells with depths ranging from 60 to 180 m.
This solved the challenges of ensure the rayon with
attention was given to build for migrants, objects of
education, culture and
had 69 schools, which cover all school-age children. Of
this total, there were 16 board school. The rayon also
had a tractor regional school and regional school, which
prepared field husbandmans, breeders and accounting for
hospitals 50 beds, 2 dispensaries and 2 first-aid post
operated in the rayon. 9 doctors and 26 paramedic
serviced these medical
power stations, 25 telephone installations and 130
public loudspeaker worked here in 1934.
All the Jewish
settlements were radio-equipped, most everyone -
electrified. Actively worked clubs, libraries, reading
rooms and field equipments
(Free Village in yiddish) was the administrative rayon
center, located 35 km from Evpatoriya and connected with
the last by
operated in rayon center. 40 students enrolled in
Fraydorf Jewish college of agricultural mechanization.
Fraydorf Jewish pedagogical college from 1932 prepared
Teachers for Jewish Schools. Education in colleges was
conducted in Yiddish for all subject
"Lenin veg" (Lenin's way) published from 1931 to 1935 in
Hebrew and Russian languages. It acted Crimean Jewish
1935 the downscaling of rayons was performed in the
Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and second
Jewish National rayon - Larindorf was formed. This rayon
consists of 12 village soviets of Fraydorf, which were
concentrated 63,5% of its Jewish population, 6 of
Dzhankoy and 2 of Ishun rayons. Dzhurchi became a rayon
center. The population was about 15 thousand people. The
rayon had 34 kolkhozes, 2 MTS, 35 schools a medical post
and two medical dispensaries. In 1937 the rayon built
cultural centre. In 1938 began working food integrated
plant, in 1939, the power station came into operation ,
in 1940 - dairy plant. Newspaper "Stalin veg"("Stalin's
way") published from 1935 to 1938 in Hebrew and Russian.
Map of Fraydorf and Larindorf Jewish national rayons. 1937.
Jewish charitable organisations provided substantial
assistance in the formation and development of the
Crimean Jewish national rayons. If the Soviet Government
allocated the land for newly created Jewish holdings,
foreign organizations allocated the bulk of funds for
its development. The share of foreign sponsors accounted
for about 70% of funds, Soviet government gave 20% and
funds of immigrants comprised only 10%. Agro-JDC
provided the greatest assistance. Only this organization
has allocated for construction of Jewish settlement in
the Crimea about 30 million dollars
despite the success of Migration Policy in late 1920's
and the beginning of 1930's Jews have not been able to
become a clear majority in Fraydorf and Larindorf
rayons. Jewish resettlement in Crimea virtually ceased
to 1937. Violent collectivization,
"internationalization" of Jewish kolkhozes, the fight
with Jewish tradition and religion, land and economic
conflicts with neighbors, course of industrialization,
redirection of efforts to the settling in Birobidzhan,
reduction of foreign aid led to the exodus of the Jewish
population from agricultural settlements in the rapidly
growing cities. Since 1936 Soviet press began to call
Fraydorf and Larindorf rayons "multinational". In 1937
the rayons officially ceased to be a Jewish national.
According to the census of 1939, at 17 December 1939 in
98 communities of Fraydorf rayon lived 14366 people,
2200 of them Jews, and in 176 communities of Larindorf
rayon lived 14350 people, 3492 of them
Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union became tragic page
in the history of Fraydorf and Larindorf rayons. Before
German troops entered the Crimea in October 1941, about
50% of Jewish population of rayons managed to evacuate.
The Jews stayed on the occupied territories were
destroyed in the period from November 1941 to June
the liberation of Crimea from Nazi invaders, 14 Dec.,
1944 by the decree of Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of
the RSFSR Fraydorf rayon was renamed in Novoselovka, and
Larindorf - in Pervomaysk. Then, have been renamed all
settlements and kolkhozes, have Jewish
Ю. Гольде. Евреи земледельцы в Крыму. М., «Дер Эмес»,
1932. стр. 336. 2. Невельштейн Е. Фрайдорфский еврейский
национальный район (Крым) / ОЗЕТ. – М.: Дер Эмес, 1934.
стр. 3, 20.
3. Там же, стр. 14, 7, 11.
4. Там же,
стр. 4, 7, 8.
5. В.Дымшиц, Красный сион. Проект
еврейской автономии в Крыму и на Дальнем Востоке. Центр
по созданию Еврейского музея в
convoy is traveling to the October demonstration in the
village Fraydorf. Evpatoriya rayon. Crimea, 1926
Photo from site http://www.ozet.ort.spb.ru/
Jews. Colony №36. Evpatoriya rayon.
the book M. Beyzer, M. Mitsel «American brother. JDC in
Russia, the Soviet Union, the CIS »