Еврейские земледельческие колонии Юга Украины и Крыма


 
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История еврейских земледельческих колоний Юга Украины и Крыма
 
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Колонии Херсонской губернии
 
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Колонии Екатеринославской губернии
 
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О названиях еврейских колоний
 
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Частновладельческие еврейские колонии Херсонской губернии
 
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Религия и еврейские земледельческие колонии
 
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Юденплан
 
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Погромы в годы Гражданской войны
 
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Еврейские национальные административные единицы Юга Украины (1930 г.)
 
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Калининдорфский еврейский национальный район
 
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Сталиндорфский еврейский национальный район
 
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Новозлатопольский еврейский национальный район
 
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Отдельные еврейские земледельческие поселения Юга Украины, основанные в 1920-1930 гг.
 
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Еврейские поселения в Крыму (1922-1926)
 
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Еврейские населенные пункты в Крыму до 1941 г.
 
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Фрайдорфский и Лариндорфский еврейские национальные районы
 
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История отдельных колоний
 
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Воспоминания, статьи, очерки, ...
 
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Списки евреев-земледельцев Херсонской губернии
 
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Списки евреев-земледельцев Екатеринославской губернии
 
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Контакт

 
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Colonies of Kherson guberniya
 
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Colonies of Ekaterinoslav guberniya
 
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The Jewish national administrative units of South Ukraine (1930)
 
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Kalinindorf jewish national rayon
 
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Stalindorf jewish national rayon
 
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The Jewish settlements in Crimea (1922-1926)
 
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The Jewish settlements in Crimea till 1941
 
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Fraydorf and Larindorf Jewish national rayons



Yakov Pasik      

The Jewish settlements in Crimea (1922-1926)

     In 1920th years Crimea became one of the main areas of resettlement of Jews and their inclusion in the agricultural activity. Relative stability of position of the Jewish population in Crimea within civil war and after has helped it. Zionist youth movement He-Halutz ("trailblazer", "pioneer"), received in 1923 the legal status in Soviet Unin, has laid the foundation of this process. The purpose of movement was preparation of the Jewish young men and girls for agricultural development of Palestine. In this period the creation of He-Halutz educational agricultural centers corresponded to the official policy of inclusion of succourless Jews in the agricultural work and therefore authorities did not create obstacles for agricultural training of Jews. Besides the Soviet authorities did not doubt that finally they will manage to replace the He-Halutz central task of labour development of Eretz Israel with red ideas. Jewish settlers received abandoned lands more often in northern waterless part of Crimea. In October, 1922 the first He-Halutz agricultural commune Tel-Hai has been established. Successful economic activities of Tekhay have led to the organization of new agricultural communes Maayan, Mishmar and Khaklay. In the middle of 1920th four jewish agricultural communes of Crimea had over 300 members.

     Young Jews pulled up roots and entered the communes where they trained physically and ideologically for work in Eretz Israel, acquired agricultural skills and a lerned Hebrew. Not all weathered such life but who has good results qualify for the immigration in Eretz Israel. However the most part of members of communes has not reached to Palestine. In 1926 the position of authorities in relation to He-Halutz has changed. OGPU agents smuggled into communes.Komzet has forbidden the reception of new members. Authorities began to accuse He-Halutz of an anti-soviet activity. Departure in Eretz Israel has been stoped. With the help of propaganda and pressure authorities managed to draw over some members of He-Halutz communes. The communistic primary organizations began to be create in communes. Arrests of a management and active workers of communes have begun. Arrested persons passed prisons and then went into exile. For the most active Zionists stay into exile then was replaced with more "severe punishment" - deportation in Palestine. In the beginning 1928 He-Halutz communes have been liquidated. In February, 1928 He-Halutz in the USSR has been forbidden. However He-Halutz activity has laid a way to creation of the Jewish agricultural settlements in Crimea in 1920-30th and former members of He-Halutz communes became a basis of the Jewish kolkhozes.

     In the beginning of 1920th almost simultaneously with the establishment of He-Halutz communes spontaneous resettlement of the Jewish population to Crimea has begun with the purpose turn to agriculture there. During revolution and civil war the significant part of dealers, handicraftmen and a various sort of intermediaries has appeared without any earnings and has been deprived of civil rights. The transit to agriculture solved also a problem of employment and maintenance with the foodstuffs during famine and ruin.The Jewish resettlers began to arrive 1922. For removal and initial installation resettlers used own funds. In 1923-24 resettlers have created a number of the Jewish settlements in Crimea generally carried Hebrew names (Kadima, Kherus, Beys-Lekhem, Akhdus, etc.). To become a resettler it was uneasy. The question of reception of new members was solved on general meeting of settlers. It was necessary to convince people of the diligence, desire and skill to work on the land. To the beginning 1925 when basically spontaneous movement of Jews to Crimea has ended there existed 20 Jewish agricultural settlements in which lived about 600 families.

     Since spring 1925 the Soviet authorities have started the organized resettlement of Jews to Crimea. To tackle this problem have been created Komzet (Committee for the Settlement of working Jews on the Land) and ОЗЕТ (Society for the Settlement of working Jews on the Land). Soviet Government has allocated the Land in Crimea for the concentrated settlement of Jews: in 1924 18262 dessiatinas; in 1925 8142 dessiatinas; in 1926 31850 dessiatinas. The greater help in resettlement was rendered by the foreign jewish organizations, first of all "Agrojoint". They provided in 1925-29 86% of all Settle charges in Crimea. Owing to the advanced methods of housekeeping and the western technics very quickly it was possible to breathe life into these lands. Artesian wells were bored, the artificial irrigation was created, the electricity and radio were installed. Wine growing took root in a steppe zone for the first time. Courses of tractor operators and agricultural schools qualified skilled labour. In 1923 In Dzhankoy "Agrojoint" has opened tractor workshop which in due course builds up into mechanical-repair works riggeded by the modern equipment and served agricultural machinery of Crimea and some areas of Ukraine.

     The list of settlements Crimean ASSR of All-Union census on December 17, 1926 included 35 Jewish (predominantly Jewish population) settlements: Avoda (Hebrew for "work"), Arbetlair, Akhdus (Hebrew for "unity"), Beys Lekhem (Hebrew for "house of bread"), Chubarov, Etsiro (Hebrew for "creation"), Fray (Yidish for "free"), Ikor (Ikar, Hebrew for "husbandman"), Kadima (Hebrew for "forward"), Khaklay (Hebrew for "peasant"), Kheyrus (Hebrew for "liberty"), Krasnyy Pahar (Russian for "red plowman"), Maayan (Hebrew for "source"), Malaya Moskva (Russian for "little Moscow"), Mangut, Mishmar (Hebrew for "guard"), Munus Staryy, Nayleben (Hebrew for "new life"), Nayshprotsung (Hebrew for "new spring"), Oyflebung (Yidish for "revival"), Pervomayskaya (Russian for "May day"), Pobeda (Russian for "victory"), Rabotnik (Russian for "worker"), Rotendorf (Yidish for "red village"), Rotenshtadt (Yidish for "red town"), Tel-Hai (Hebrew for "hill of life"), Tikva (Hebrew for "hope"), Topalov, Zarya (Russian for "dawn"), Zemledelets (Russian for "agriculturist"), Zemlerob (Ukrainian for "agriculturist"), resettler parcel of land 3 or Agudas Akhim (Hebrew for "brotherhood"), 49, 62 and 89.

The Map of the Jewish settlements in Crimea for December 17, 1926

Карта

The Table of the Jewish settlements in Crimea for December 17,1926



Settlement name
(data for 1926)
    Location      Population
total / jews
Settlement name
(data for 1941)
Settlement name
(data for 2006)
collective farm Avoda or Avoyda Tsarekvichi village soviet Dzhankoy rayon N 45°33'54",
E 34°18'09"
146 / 111 Frayleben (former Reyzendorf) Telman rayon Volnoe Volnoe settlement soviet Dzhankoy rayon
village Akchora Novaya (collective farm Zemlerob) Akchora village soviet Dzhankoy rayon N 45°33'39",
E 34°00'15"
97 / 85 Volodarsk, uch. 77 Larindorf rayon Volodarskogo Pervomayskoye rayon does not exist
bowery Alchin (collective farm Zarya) Bolek-Andzhi village soviet Yevpatoriya rayon N 45°18’21",
E 33°20’58"
72 / 63 Alchin-Fraygan Yevpatoriya rayon Velikoe Suvorovo village soviet Saki rayon
village Aranda (collective farm Rabotnik) Saurchi village soviet Feodosiya rayon N 45°17'47",
E 34°47'01"
99 / 96 Pchelniki Sovetskiy rayon Pchelniki Zavetnoe village soviet Sovetskiy rayon
collective farm Ar betlair or Arbetlair Annovka village soviet Dzhankoy rayon N 45°35'35",
E 34°13'15"
15 / 8 Kalinindorf (Novyy Trud), uch. 78/79 Telman rayon Kalinino Kalinino village soviet Krasnogvardeyskoye rayon
collective farm Beys Lekhem (Cherkez-Tobay) Ichki village soviet Feodosiya rayon N 45°07'28",
E 34°50'37"
72 / 71 Beys Lekhem Feodosiya rayon Khlebnoye Chapaevo village soviet Sovetskiy rayon
village Chebotary Starye (collective farm Pobeda) Novodmitrievka village soviet Yevpatoriya rayon N 45°06'50",
E 33°39'06"
132 / 69 Chebotary Starye Yevpatoriya rayon Chebotary Orekhovo village soviet Saki rayon
bowery Chubarov or Chebarov Dzhurchi village soviet Dzhankoy rayon N 45°38’42",
E 33°51’51"
34 / 21 Frunze (kolkhoz "Nayveg"), uch. 58 Larindorf rayon Frunze Grishino village soviet Pervomayskoye rayon
collective farm Etsiro (Otradnoe) Dzhurchi village soviet Dzhankoy rayon N 45°44’38",
E 34°04’05"
107 / 102 Kiyak (fotmer Rykovo) Larindorf rayon Ostrovskoe Ostrovskoe village sovie Pervomayskoye rayon
collective farm Fray (Karaul Dzhangara) Ishun (nemets.) village soviet Dzhankoy rayon N 45°31'21",
E 34°04'26"
19 / 19 Karaul Dzhangara Telman rayon Karpovka Klepinino village soviet Krasnogvardeyskoye rayon
collective farm Gatykva or Tikva (Karaul Dzhangara) Ishun (nemets.) village soviet Dzhankoy rayon N 45°31'21",
E 34°04'26"
32 / 32 Karaul Dzhangara Telman rayon Karpovka Klepinino village soviet Krasnogvardeyskoye rayon
colony Ikor-Sukurkoy Bogay village soviet Yevpatoriya rayon N 45°15’25",
E 33°15’03"
144 / 135 Ikor Yevpatoriya rayon Romashkino Romashkino village soviet Saki rayon
collective farm Kadima (Kadimo) Dzhankoy Nemetskiy village soviet Dzhankoy rayon N 45°42’01",
E 34°27'05"
125 / 113 Kadym (Kadymo) Dzhankoy rayon Pobednoe Pobednoe village soviet Dzhankoy rayon
collective farm Kheyrus Belyy Kosh village soviet Feodosiya rayon N 45°28'55",
E 35°03'30"
116 / 116 Kheyrus Ichki rayon Dmitrovka Dmitrovka village soviet Sovetskiy rayon
village Khoklay (Khaklay) Rotendorf village soviet Dzhankoy rayon N 45°35’36",
E 34°32’48"
287 / 271 Mayfeld Kolay rayon Mayskoe Mayskoe village soviet Dzhankoy rayon
collective farm Kir-Baylyar (Akhdus or Akhdas) Biyuk-Onlar village soviet Simferopol rayon N 45°16'15",
E 34°03'05"
125 / 113 Lenindorf Biyuk-Onlar rayon Leninskoe Leninskoe village soviet Krasnogvardeyskoye rayon
state farm Krasnyy Pahar (Novaya Zhizn) Bolek-Andzhi village soviet Yevpatoriya rayon N 45°18'40",
E 33°12'15"
24 / 20 Naydorf, uch 39 Yevpatoriya rayon Shishkino Vorobyevo village soviet Saki rayon
village Malaya Moskva Dzelal village soviet Yevpatoriya rayon N 45°26'28",
E 33°35'51"
18 / 18 Fraydorf, uch. 22 Fraydorf rayon Settlement of urban type Novoselovskoye Novoselovskoye settlement soviet Razdolnoe rayon
bowery Mangut (Timoshenko) Vorontsovo village soviet Dzhankoy rayon N 45°46’45",
E 33°50’50"
29 / 22 Der Emes (former Bukharindorf), uch.115 Larindorf rayon Pravda Pravda village soviet Pervomayskoye rayon
commune Maayan (Kiblerovka) Ak Sheikh village soviet Dzhankoy rayon N 45°37'57",
E 34°39'09"
42 / 38 Yantsevo Azovskoe rayon Svetloe Svetloe village soviet Dzhankoy rayon
commune Mishmar (Kuchuk-Alkaly) Taganash village soviet Dzhankoy rayon N 45°51'50",
E 34°23'21"
83 / 83 Zavet Leninа Dzhankoy rayon Zavet Leninskiy Zavet Leninskiy village soviet Dzhankoy rayon
village Munus Staryy Kadysh сvillage soviet Yevpatoriya rayon N 45°38’17",
E 33°29’47"
129 / 64 Oktyabrdorf (Munus evreyskiy, former Reyzendorf), uch. 71v Fraydorf rayon Serebryanka Serebryanka village soviet Razdolnoe rayon
village Nayleben Rotendorf village soviet Dzhankoy rayon N 45°30'32",
E 34°23'18"
184 / 180 Nayleben Telman rayon Voskhod Voskhod village soviet Krasnogvardeyskoye rayon
village Nayshprocung (Neyshprocung, former Lomovik) Rotendorf village soviet Dzhankoy rayon N 45°31'54",
E 34°25'29"
81 / 78 Nayshprocung Telman rayon Chapaevo Voskhod village soviet Krasnogvardeyskoye rayon
village Oyflebung (Uchastok 5) Rotendorf village soviet Dzhankoy rayon N 45°30'11",
E 34°31'25"
173 / 167 Oyfleybung Telman rayon Zarya Voskhod village soviet Krasnogvardeyskoye rayon
colony Pervomayskaya ( former Osnova and Beytanysh) Shunuk village soviet Simferopol rayon N 45°06'55",
E 34°03'44"
108 / 76 Pervomayskoye Simferopol rayon Pervomayskoye Pervomayskoye village soviet Simferopol rayon
village Rotendorf (Uchastok 6) Rotendorf village soviet Dzhankoy rayon N 45°32'58",
E 34°31' 26"
190 / 184 Rotendorf Kolay rayon Larino Mayskoe village soviet Dzhankoy rayon
village Rotenshtadt (Uchastok 4) Rotendorf village soviet Dzhankoy rayon N 45°29'36",
E 34°28' 27"
190 / 184 Rotenshtadt Telman rayon Klimovo Voskhod village soviet Krasnogvardeyskoye rayon
commune Tel-Hai Ak Sheikh village soviet Dzhankoy rayon N 45°37’53",
E 34°33’07"
94 / 94 Oktyabr Kolay rayon Oktyabr Mayskoe village soviet Dzhankoy rayon
bowery Topalov Dzuma Ablam village soviet Simferopol rayon N 45°13'40",
E 33°50'09"
17 / 17 Lunacharka Saki rayon Kraynee Kraynee village soviet Saki rayon
village Uchastok 3 (Agudas Akhim) Rotendorf village soviet Dzhankoy rayon N 45°28'51",
E 34°25'41"
190 / 176 Fraydotf Telman rayon Novoselcy Voskhod village soviet Krasnogvardeyskoye rayon
village Uchastok 49 Dzhurchi village soviet Dzhankoy rayon N 45°44'23",
E 34°59'35"
24 / 20 Voroshilovo Larindorf rayon Znamenka Ostrovskoe village soviet Pervomayskoye rayon does not exist
village Uchastok 62 Dzhurchi village soviet Dzhankoy rayon N 45°43'22",
E 33°56'28"
24 / 24 Larindorf Larindorf rayon Krestyanovka Krestyanovka village sovie Pervomayskoye rayon
village Uchastok 89 Rotendorf village soviet Dzhankoy rayon N 45°32'35",
E 34°20' 53"
29 / 29 Frayfeld Telman rayon Znamenka Voskhod village soviet Krasnogvardeyskoye rayon
jewish colony Zemledelets Karacha-Kangil village soviet Simferopol rayon N 45°06'55",
E 34°03'44"
159 / 143 Kalininsk Simferopol rayon Pervomayskoe Pervomayskoe settlement soviet Simferopol rayon


     On december 17, 1926, 4463 Jews resided in rural areas of Crimea (about 10% of the Jewish population of the Crimea, 1.1% of the Crimean rural population).
     Jewish settlements were located in four (22 - in Dzhankoy, 6 - Yevpatoriya, 4 - Simferopol, 3 - in Feodosia) of the 10 administrative regions of Crimea.
     3411 people lived in Jewish settlements, including 3055 Jews (89.56%).
     The biggest Jewish settlement was the village Khaklay, 287 people lived there, including 271 Jews (94.43%) and the smallest - collective farm Ar-Betlair consisting of 15 members, 8 of them Jews (53.33%). 97 people lived in the average Jewish settlement of the Crimea, among them 87 Jews (89.7%)

     Compactness of residing of resettlers has enabled to open on March 2, 1926 the first in Crimea the Rotendorf Jewish national Village Soviet which for December 17, 1926 included 8 villages: Rotendorf (Uchastok 6), Rotenshtadt (Uchastok 4), Nayleben, Nayshprocung, Khaklay, Oyflebung (Uchastok 5), Uchastok 3 (Agudas Akhim) and Uchastok 89. On December 17, 1926, 1324 people lived on the territory of the village council, including 1269 Jews (95.85%).

19-04-2006    

Карта
Members of the commune Mishmar. Crimea, 1925.
Photo from the book M. Beyzer, M. Mitsel "American brother. JDC in Russia, the Soviet Union, the CIS"

Карта
Panel members of the commune Tel-Hai in Simferopol. Left to right: Sh. Paz, D. Berzner, A. Tsur, Sh. Meyzlin, D. Oren. 1927.
Photo from the book M. Beyzer, M. Mitsel "American brother. JDC in Russia, the Soviet Union, the CIS"


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