Jewish agricultural colonies south of Ukraine and Crimea
01.01.2015 version of the page http://www.evkol.nm.ru/kalinindorf_en.htm


 
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История еврейских земледельческих колоний Юга Украины
 
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Колонии Херсонской губернии
 
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Колонии Екатеринославской губернии
 
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О названиях еврейских колоний
 
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Частновладельческие еврейские колонии Херсонской губернии
 
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Религия и еврейские земледельческие колониии
 
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Юденплан
 
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Погромы в годы Гражданской войны
 
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Еврейские национальные административные единицы Юга Украины (1930 г.)
 
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Калининдорфский еврейский национальный район
 
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Сталиндорфский еврейский национальный район
 
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Новозлатопольский еврейский национальный район
 
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Отдельные еврейские земледельческие поселения Юга Украины, основанные в 1920-1930 гг.
 
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Еврейские поселения в Крыму (1922-1926)
 
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Еврейские населенные пункты в Крыму до 1941 г.
 
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Фрайдорфский и Лариндорфский еврейские национальные районы
 
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История отдельных колоний
 
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Катастрофа еврейского крестьянства Юга Украины и Крыма
 
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Воспоминания, статьи, очерки, ...
 
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Списки евреев-земледельцев Херсонской губернии
 
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Списки евреев-земледельцев Екатеринославской губернии
 
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Воины-уроженцы еврейских колоний, погибшие, умершие от ран и пропавшие без вести в годы войны
 
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Жители еврейских колоний - жертвы политических репрессий
 
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Контакт

 
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Colonies of Kherson guberniya
 
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Colonies of Ekaterinoslav guberniya
 
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The Jewish national administrative units of South Ukraine (1930)
 
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Kalinindorf jewish national rayon
 
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Stalindorf jewish national rayon
 
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The Jewish settlements in Crimea (1922-1926)
 
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The Jewish settlements in Crimea till 1941
 
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Fraydorf and Larindorf Jewish national rayons



Yakov Pasik      

Kalinindorf jewish national rayon

   In 1926 in the Kherson okrug (Russian: округ - county) of Ukraine has been created Seydemenukha rayon (Russian: район - district). In 1927 it has been transformed to the first in Soviet Union Kalinindorf Jewish national rayon. From 1932 the rayon was a part of the Odessa, and from 1937 - of the Nikolaev oblast (Russian: область - region). The precondition for creation Jewish national rayon became mass resettlement of Jews from cities and shtetles in a countryside and their engaging in agriculture begun by the Soviet leadership. in 1925 by financial and technical support of Agrojoint, Jewish Colonisation Association and other Jewish international organizations have been expanded old Jewish agricultural colonies and have been created new Jewish agricultural settlements on the vacant land. As a result had formed a area with the compact Jewish country population.

   In 1927 Kalinindorf rayon consisted of 7 village Soviet (administrative unit consisting of one or several villages):
- Kalinindorf (2789 people);
- Bobrovyy Kut (1450 people);
- Emes (879 people);
- Frayleben (2219 people);
- Khresto-Vozdvizhenka (ukrainian, 869 people);
- Lvovo (2463 people);
- Sholom Aleyhem (1110 people).

   Total population of 44 rayon's settlements was 11779 people from them 9928 people lived in 36 Jewish settlements. The large were old Jewish colonies Kalinindorf (1915 people), Bobrovyy Kut (1450), Lvovo (1448), Malaya (from Russian малая - "small") Seydemenukha (758) and new migratory settlements Yudendorf (479), Trotsky (346), Vaysbrunen (343), Frayleben (316). After connection of pieces of land to the easterly of the river Ingulets three more jewish Village Soviets have been formed: Ershtmay, Molotovo and Postyshevo.

   Kalinindorf, up to 1927 Bolshaya Seydemenukha, became administrative centre of the Jewish national rayon . Bolshaya Seydemenukha (from Hebrew Sde menukha - "a silent field" and from Russian большая - "big" ) was one of the first in Novorossia (New Russia) the Jewish agricultural colonies. This colony was established in 1807 in the Kherson province (guberniya) by settlers from the Mogilyov, Chernigov and Vitebsk province. According to the census 1897 the colony had 1570 inhabitants from them 1284 Jews.

   In the first years after establishment the rayon quickly developed. Its population in 1932 has reached 13674 person from which 11198 were Jews (from them of 71 % new settlers). 87,3 % of the rayon's land have been fixed to the Jewish settlements.

   Management, legal proceedings, school education, cultural-educational work with the population were conducted basically in Yiddish. In the same language there was regional newspaper "Kolvirt-Emes" (the Collective-farm truth). In Kalinindorf the pedagogical school prepared the national staff of teachers, and agronomical technical school in Lvovo - agriculturists, livestock specialists, machine operators and meliorators.

    The Speed of the collectivization begun in 1929 were considerably above medium-ukrainian. By November, 1930 83,3 % and by January, 1932 - 98,7 % farms in rayon had been collectivized. The reason for high rates first of all was the high degree of cooperation in newly created settlements. By the middle of 1930th the rayon became absolutely collectivized. There have been created 39 jewish kolkhozes from 49 available in rayon.

   Violent withdrawal of grain from newly organized Jewish kolkhozes has resulted in 1932-33 as well as everywhere in Ukraine to mass famine with death of people. According to information of Odessa regional committee of communist party in March 1933 among ten rayons with the highest death from undereating were Kalinindorf rayon. Only in village Shterndorf (former Malaya Seydemenukha) in 1932-33 from famine have died (according to the official obviously underestimated data) 30 person.

   Collectivization, dekulakization, famine, reprisals against so-called nationalist elements and cut-backs on localization policy has compelled many Jews to leave rayon in 1930th and to move in quickly growing cities requiring a labour. Growth of number of the Jewish population in Kalinindorf rayon has stopped.

   Only to the middle of 1930th having overcome terrible consequences of collectivization kolkhoz's manufacture though slowly but began to grow and the life in rayon improved. The Jewish kolkhozes began to gain strength. Some of them became advanced and prospering.

   The most tragical page in history Kalinindorf rayon became the war which has begun on June 22, 1941 between Nazi Germany and Soviet Union. With the beginning of the war all bound to military service has been called in army. Kalinindorfers heroically battled on all fronts. The Most part of front-line soldiers was killed in battles. In the summer 1941 the Red Army suffered shattering defeats. In August, 1941 German armies occupied Kalinindorf rayon.

   In the middle of September, 1941 nazis and theirs vassals have started liquidation not had time to run from German armies the Jewish population of Kalinindorf rayon, basically women, children and old men. They have shot and have tortured 4100 Jews of Kalinindorf rayon.

   In 1941 history Kalinindorf Jewish national rayon has come to the end. After release from Nazi occupants practically all settlements of rayon with the Jewish names have been renamed. Only names of railway station Kalinindorf and village Malaya Seydemenukha remind of the past.

The map of Kalinindorf jewish national rayon. 1933.

Карта

The Jewish settlements of Kalinindorf national rayon

Settlement name Location Settlement name (data for 2006)

Old colonies

Kalinindorf (former Bolshaya Seydemenukha) N 47°06'52",
E 32°58'27"
Settlement of urban type Kalininskoe Velikoaleksandrovka rayon Kherson oblast
Bobrovyy Kut N 47°05'54",
E 32°56'42"
Village Bobrovyy Kut Bobrovyy Kut village soviet Velikoaleksandrovka rayon Kherson oblast
Lvovo N 46°47'37",
E 33°09'07"
Village Lvovo Lvovo village soviet Berislav rayon Kherson oblast
Shterndorf (former Malaya Seydemenukha) N 47°07'57",
E 33°00'24"
Village Malaya Seydemenukha Blagodatovka village soviet Velikoaleksandrovka rayon Kherson oblast

New settlements on the land of old colonies

Blyumenfeld N 47°03',
E 33°05'
Does not exist
Krasnoslav N 47°01'59",
E 33°05'48"
Bowery Krasnoslav Karl Marx soviet Kalinin rayon Kherson oblast (data 1946) does not exist
Roytfeld N 47°05',
E 33°08'
Does not exist
Trud-Schaste N 47°03',
E 33°08'
Does not exist
Frayfeld (Bolshevik Ingultsa) N 47°06'05",
E 33°06'58"
Village Bezymennoe Tamarino village soviet Snigirevka rayon Nikolaev oblast

New settlements on the land of Kherson fund

Fraydorf, uch. 1 N 47°03'58",
E 33°13'49"
Village Vishnevoe Chkalovo village soviet Velikoaleksandrovka rayon Kherson oblast
Yudendorf, uch. 2 N 47°03'56",
E 33°12'27"
Village Chkalovo Chkalovo village soviet Velikoaleksandrovka rayon Kherson oblast
Frayleben, uch. 3 N 47°03'41",
E 33°10'35"
Village Stepovoe Chkalovo village soviet Velikoaleksandrovka rayon Kherson oblast
Naydorf, uch. 4 N 47°01'21",
E 33°08'29"
Does not exist
Vaysbrunen, uch. 5 N 47°02'21",
E 33°12'03"
Village Krinichanka Chkalovo village soviet Velikoaleksandrovka rayon Kherson oblast
Nayvelt, uch. 6 N 46°58'26",
E 33°12'23"
Bowery Shostovka Sholom Aleykhem village soviet Kalinin rayon Kherson oblast (data 1946) does not exist
Uchastok 7 N 47°00',
E 33°13'
Does not exist
Ratendorf (Ratndorf), uch. 8 N 47°01'58",
E 33°18'22"
Bowery Dmitrovka Voroshilovka village soviet Kalinin rayon Kherson oblast (data 1946) does not exist
Mendeldorf, uch. 9 N 47°01'20",
E 33°17'49"
Bowery Bereznevyy Voroshilovka village soviet Kalinin rayon Kherson oblast (data 1946) does not exist
Kiperovka, uch. 10 N 46°53'24",
E 32°50'54"
Village Kirovo Kirovo village soviet Berislav rayon Kherson oblast
Chemerin (Chemerinka), uch.11 N 46°54'20",
E 32°56'40"
Village Ingulovka Kirovo village soviet Berislav rayon Kherson oblast
Uchastok 12 N 46°54'56",
E 32°59'30"
Village Chaykino Kirovo village soviet Berislav rayon Kherson oblast
Uchastok 13 N 46°59'26",
E 32°57'32"
Village Vetrovoe Kuybyshevo village soviet Kalinin rayon Kherson oblast
Emes, uch. 14 N 46°58'30",
E 32°59'05"
Village Kuybyshevo Kirovo village soviet Berislav rayon Kherson oblast
Naykiev, uch. 15 N 46°59',
E 33°03'
Does not exist
Maydorf (former Trotsky, Trotskoe), uch. 16 N 46°58'32",
E 33°02'43"
Village Rovnoe Berislav rayon Kherson oblast does not exist
Vinchevsky (Vinchevskoe), uch.17 N 46°57'59",
E 33°08'14"
Village Matrosovka Berislav rayon Kherson oblast does not exist
Sholom Aleykhem, uch.18 N 46°58'07",
E 33°11'13"
Village Novoselovka Rakovka village soviet Berislav rayon Kherson oblast
Abramichev (Abramichevo, Abramovka), uch.19 N 46°57'04",
E 33°12'53"
Village Pershotravneve Rakovka village soviet Berislav rayon Kherson oblast
Nayfeld, uch. 20 N 46°55'16",
E 33°05'56"
Village Vysokoe Vysokoe village soviet Berislav rayon Kherson oblast
Uchastok 21 N 47°08'48",
E 33°04'41"
Village Stepovoe Velikoaleksandrovka rayon Kherson oblast does not exist
Strashunovka (after Kaganovich), uch. 23 N 46°56'09",
E 33°12'40"
Bowery Vinogradovka Sholom Aleykhem village soviet Kalinin rayon Kherson oblast (data 1946) does not exist
Respublikanets (Agrotekhnikum Yakovlev) N 46°47'28",
E 33°10'36"
Included in village Lvovo Lvovo village soviet Berislav rayon Kherson oblast
Sovkhoz T.Yurkin, uch.24 N 46°54'54",
E 33°13'20"
Does not exist

New settlements on the land of Lenin fund

Ershtmay, uch. 8 N 46°56'57",
E 32°36'22"
Village Pershotravnevoe Pershotravnevoe village soviet Snigirevka rayon Nikolaev oblast
Nay Volyn, uch. 9 N 46°59'48",
E 32°39'06"
Village Zarya Kuybyshevo village soviet Snigirevka rayon Nikolaev oblast
Merezhynfeld (after Nay Veg), uch. 10 N 46°59'21",
E 32°43'32"
Village Novyy Shlyakh Gorokhovskoe village soviet Snigirevka rayon Nikolaev oblast
Zangenfeld (after Postyshev), uch. 11 N 46°57'59",
E 32°40'41"
Village Vinogradnoe Gorokhovskoe village soviet Snigirevka rayon Nikolaev oblast
Nayfeld, uch. 12 N 46°56'05",
E 32°39'22"
Village Velikopole Gorokhovskoe village soviet Snigirevka rayon Nikolaev oblast
Naydorf, uch. 13 N 46°55'15",
E 32°36'34"
Village Trudolyubovka Pershotravnevoe village soviet Snigirevka rayon Nikolaev oblast
Rozen (Rozenovka), uch. 14 N 46°52'26",
E 32°37'26"
Bowery Yarovoy Molotovo village soviet Snigirevka rayon Nikolaev oblast (data 1946) does not exist
Naygeym, uch. 16 N 46°52'20',
E 32°41'23"
Village Chervonaya Zirka Chervonaya Zirka village soviet Snigirevka rayon Nikolaev oblast
Kalininfeld (after Molotovka, Molotovo), uch. 17 N 46°53'43",
E 32°44'18"
Village Chervonyy Promin Baratovka village soviet Snigirevka rayon Nikolaev oblast
Frayland, uch. 37 N N 46°00'40",
E 32°38'30"
Village Kuybyshevo Kuybyshevo village soviet Snigirevka rayon Nikolaev oblast


   List of reference :
    Список залюднених місць Херсоньскої округи на 1 січня 1928 р., Херсоньске округове статистичне бюро, Херсон, 1928.
    Maps, plans and documents from the Joseph A. Rosen papers


01-11-2007    


Карта
Members of a Jewish kolkhoz «The road to socialism» of Kalinindorf rayon. 1932.
Photo from the book M. Beyzer, M. Mitsel «American brother. JDC in Russia, the Soviet Union, the CIS»

Карта
Jews farmers from the colony "Royter Octyabr". Kalinindorf rayon, Ukraine, mid-1920's.
Photo from site www.ozet.ort.spb.ru

Карта
Amateur brass band. Kalinindorf jewish national rayon, Ukraine, until 1936.
Photo of P. Ganin from site www.ozet.ort.spb.ru


Remarks and suggestions please send to address:     y.pasik@mail.ru
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